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Silver Penny of King Edward I Minted in London 1279 - 1307, Hamm


Silver Penny of King Edward I Minted in London 1279 - 1307, Hamm

King Edward I Penny Silver Coin Minted in London 1279 - 1307

View our other British coins for sale on Etsy here, https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/CoinsUK


Silver Penny of King Edward I Minted in London 1279 - 1307, Hamm

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Sunday, 10 October 2021

How to Test for Pure Zari in Kanjivaram and other Sarees

A few testing laboratories in Kanchipuram provide this service. This is what this portal has to say about the testing method:

In order to build the confidence and credibility among the customers and in the industry about the quality of zari in silk fabrics, testing is very important and much required.  Hitherto, for testing metal contents in zari, destructive method of testing has been carried out.  Now, the testing of zari samples and zari made fabric are carried out by Non-destructive testing (XRF Analyser), which is a unique one.  The technical know-how of the project was jointly developed by Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Councils (TIFAC) and Tamil Nadu Zari with the guidance of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR, Kalpakkam).

The Zari is sold in terms of MARC.  Weight of one marc is 242 grams.  The composition of the marc is indicated below: -

                              SILVER     55        to     57%

                              SILK         22         to     24%

                              GOLD    0.59        to   0.60%

                              COPPER   20        to     22%


The required raw materials for the production of the gold zari are:-

Ø      Silver wire        -  76 to 77%

Ø      Silk                   -   13 X 15 denier

Ø      Gold                 -   24 carat.

The information below talks about the XRF technique

XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. XRF analyzers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray emitted from a sample when it is excited by a primary X-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent X-rays (“a fingerprint”) that is unique for that specific element, which is why XRF spectroscopy is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition.

What is Single, 1.5, double warp in Kanjivaram Sarees

1. Kanjivaram Sarees Use 20-22 denier 3 ply filaments. 
2. Single warp means 100 ends per inch. For a 49 inches loom, the number of ends in a single warp is 4900. 
3. 1.5 warp means 150 ends per inch. For a 49 inches loom, the number of ends in a 1.5 inches warp is 7350. 
4. Double warp means 200 ends per inch. For a 49 inches loom, the number of ends in a 2 inches warp is 9800. 
5. Generally, the number of picks are more for single warp, then for 1.5 warp or double warp. 
6. Generally 72, 74, 76 PPi is used. 

Sunday, 21 March 2021

What are the Various Wild Silk Yarns


  1. Reeled Tussar/ Tussar Raw Silk: It is reeled from Tussar cocoons using different appliance. Reeled Tussar is finer in nature.

  2. TussarGicha: Yarn drawn by hand out of Tussar cocoons without any twist.

  3. Tussar Katia: Yarn spun out of Tussar waste after opening and cleaning.

  4. Tussar Jhuri: Yarn spun out of uncleaned Tussar waste without subjecting it to opening and cleaning process.

  5. Balkal yarn: Yarn spun out of Tussar cocoon peduncles, after boiling in alkaline solution and opened up.

  6. Tussar Spun Silk: Yarn spun in the mill out of Tussar silk waste.

  7. Muga Raw Silk: Yarn reeled from Muga cocoons.

  8. Muga Gicha: Yarn drawn by hand out of muga cocoons without any twist.

  9. Hand Spun Endi/ Eri Silk: Yarn spun by hand appliances from Eri cocoons.

  10. Mill Spun Eri Yarn: Yarn spun in the mill from Eri cocoons.

You can find here the various wild silk fabrics and how to take care of silk. 

How Cocoons are measured in Wild Silk ( Vanya Silk)

 Tussar Cocoons:

The unit of measurement of tussar cocoons is Kahan. Number of Cocoons per Kahan vary in different states. In MP one Kahan has 1000 cocoons while in Maharashtra it has 4000 Cocoons. 

About 1200 cocoons are required to produce one kg of yarn. 


The Eri cocoons are measured on the basis of weight ( kg)


The Muga cocoons are transacted in thousand numbers. About 5000 cocoons are required to produce 1 kg of Muga Raw Silk.


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